Ukraine has significant scientific potential in many areas. The main state scientific center is the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine (since 1919), which directs and organizes research in leading areas of science. The academy has 170 scientific institutions (of which 5 are international), an experimental production base, and 6 research centers. Among the creative achievements of Ukrainian scientists are significant achievements in technology, molecular biology, physics, physical chemistry, computer science, materials science, physiology and medicine, and other branches of knowledge. It is worth mentioning the following scientific achievements and discoveries: the splitting of lithium atoms and the discovery of the helium isotope, the creation of the theory of superhard welding under a flux layer and its implementation in economic practice, the creation of powder metallurgy, the production of heavy water, creation of the world’s first laser storage device based on optical cylinders using optical immersion phenomena. The results of studies on determining the conditions for the formation of diamond-like carbon, hexagonal graphite and other mixtures by the method of high-speed electron-beam evaporation and graphite condensate in vacuum have received worldwide recognition.
Ukrainian scientists have made a great contribution to space exploration and the creation of rocket technology. Among the most important results in this area are the creation of a series of complex universal orbital stations, launch vehicles “Zenith”, “Cyclone”, new rocket engines, unique control systems for launch vehicles and spacecraft, on-board cooling systems in aviation and astronautics, a unique tool for assembly and repair work in outer space.
An important achievement of the scientists of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine is the creation of large transparent single crystals of synthetic diamonds, the optical capabilities of which can be controlled. Ukraine exports various tools made of synthetic diamonds and superhard materials using its own technologies to many countries of the world. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine maintains international relations with scientific centers, academies and societies of various states; participates in international projects.
A great deal of scientific work is being carried out at branch research institutes, at higher educational institutions, especially at universities, at the Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture, and at the Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Large scientific and university centers: Kyiv, Kharkov, Odessa, Lvov, Dnepropetrovsk, Chernivtsi. In the capital of Ukraine there are the National University, the Kiev-Mohyla Academy, the Kyiv National University. Taras Shevchenko. At T. Shevchenko University, 16 faculties teach approx. 20 thousand students, almost 2 thousand teachers work.
In Ukraine, there are 21.6 thousand day general education schools, of which: 366 gymnasiums and 331 lyceums. Secondary specialized educational institutions – 667 (their number decreased in the 1990s), higher educational institutions – 330 (an increase in the number approximately doubled in 1991-2002). There are 6.2 million students in general education schools, 214.9 thousand in gymnasiums, and 122.6 thousand in lyceums (there has been an increase in the popularity of the last two types of general education institutions and a threefold increase in the number of students in them in 1991-2002). In secondary specialized educational institutions, the number of students is decreasing: from 739 to 583 thousand people. (1991-2002), and in universities it is growing, doubling over the same period – from 876 thousand people. in 1991 to 1687 thousand people. in 2002.
During the years of reforms, there is an outflow of scientists from the country due to underfunding of science: in 2000, in real terms, it amounted to only 16.1% of the 1990 level. in 1990 to 191.3 thousand people. in 2000. In the structure of those employed in scientific and scientific-technical activities over the same period, the share of support personnel decreased by 3 times and candidates of sciences by 1.6 times; the share of doctors of sciences increased by 1.3 times. The scientific staff is aging: the average age of candidates of sciences has reached 51 years (in 1991 – 47 years), doctors of sciences – 59 years (in 1991 – 55 years). In total, 191.3 thousand people worked in scientific organizations of Ukraine, of which 4.17 thousand people have the degree of doctor of science, 18.1 thousand people have the degree of candidate of science. Approximately 105 thousand
The R&D sector as a whole is in crisis. Funding for scientific and scientific-technical work has decreased from 3% of GDP in 1990 to 1.13% in 2000.
The art of Ukraine has rich folklore traditions. The Ukrainian people created many songs, fairy tales, thoughts, ditties, kolomykas, proverbs and sayings, legends and traditions. Thoughts and songs reflected the history of heroic resistance against the Mongol-Tatar and Turkish invaders, the Polish gentry, the struggle of serfs against landlords and the regime of tsarist Russia.
Literary roots are associated with the ancient Russian nationality (literature of Kievan Rus). A large number of written monuments have been preserved, the most outstanding of which – “The Tale of Igor’s Campaign” – is considered common to the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. Researchers note the beginnings of Ukrainian cultural, everyday and linguistic originality in the Galicia-Volyn Chronicle of the 13th-14th centuries. and in the Western Russian (“Lithuanian”) chronicles of the 14th-15th centuries. They are even more noticeable in the monuments of the 16th century. In the beginning. 16th century printed books of Eastern Europe appeared in Ukraine, and in the 17th century. The first Orthodox university was opened: the Kiev-Mohyla Academy. From the 18th century begins the rapid development of Ukrainian art and literature. A particularly important role in the process of formation of the new literature of the 19th century. belongs to I.P. Kotlyarevsky, author of the poem “Aeneid”. With love painted people of labor, noble features endowed the images of Ukrainian peasants P.P. Gulak-Artemovsky is the author of fables, lyric poems, ballads, G.F. Kvitka is the first Ukrainian prose writer, poet E.P. Comb. The work of the great Ukrainian poet T. Shevchenko had a huge impact on the subsequent development of Ukrainian poetry, on the literature of all Slavic peoples, and had a great public resonance. His talented follower in prose was Marko Vovchok. Among the writers of the democratic direction, the 2nd half. 19th century stand out A.P. Svidnitsky, S.V. Rudansky, I.S. Nechuy_Levitsky, Panas Mirny and others. Ivan Franko was an outstanding writer, scientist, thinker and public figure of the revolutionary democratic direction. Along with T. Shevchenko, he is a world-class writer. Under his influence in Eastern Ukraine in the 1880s. Lesya Ukrainka (pseudonym; real name – Larisa Petrovna Kosach-Kvitka) brightly appeared in literature. On the whole, pre-October Ukrainian literature occupied one of the prominent places in world literature. The Soviet period is associated with the names of poets P.G. Tychyna, V.N. Sosyura, N.P. Bazhan, with dramaturgy by M. Rylsky, A.E. Korneichuk, with the prose of writers – participants in the Great Patriotic War A.T. Gonchar, M.A. Stelmakh, N. Rybak, P. Panch, Ostap Vishnya, Y. Smolich.
According to andyeducation.com, Ukrainian musical art is rich and varied. The oldest genres of songwriting: labor songs, calendar songs (carols, schedrivkas, stoneflies, kupala, stubble, etc.), ritual and household songs (crying, lamentations, wedding, lullabies, etc.). The ancient Ukrainian folk songs are characterized by a melodic-singing warehouse, couplet structure. The favorite national instrument is the bandura, a typical folk instrumental ensemble is the “troista music” (folk trio): violin, basso, tambourine (or cymbals). From folk dances, hopak, kazachok, blizzard, kolomyika, lasso are popular. In the development of professional musical culture in Ukraine, an important role was played in the 16th century. “fraternity”. In the 18th century Prominent Ukrainian composers D.S. have done a lot for the development of Ukrainian music. Bortnyansky and M.S. Berezovsky. An important role in the development of Ukrainian professional musical art, con. 18 – 1st floor. 19th centuries had a theatre: in the plays of that period, musical numbers based on folk songs and dances were widely used; the opera “Zaporozhets beyond the Danube” by the composer and singer S. Gulak-Artemovsky appeared (1863). M. Verbitsky, I. Lavrovsky worked in Western Ukraine; known author of 3 operas (including “The Siege of Dubno” by N. Gogol) P. Sokalsky. The founder of Ukrainian classical music was the outstanding composer, teacher and musical public figure N. Lysenko (operas Taras Bulba, Drowned Woman, Natalka-Poltavka, Aeneid). Many Ukrainian singers, conductors, musicians are widely known throughout the world; Ukrainian people are considered to be musically gifted by right. There are 5 opera theaters, 3 theaters of musical comedy, 25 philharmonics,
Theatrical art and cinema are developed. Outstanding film director – A.P. Dovzhenko, whose name is the Kyiv film studio. Films shot at the Odessa film studio are very popular.