Andorra, is the parliamentary principality located in southwestern Europe. It is bordered on the north and east by France and on the south and west by Spain. It is one of the smallest countries in the world, with 468 km2. The capital is Andorra la Vella.
TERRITORY AND RESOURCES
It is a mountainous region of narrow valleys. The river Valira flows in the direction of Spain. Among its natural resources, deposits of iron and lead are noteworthy.
POPULATION AND GOVERNMENT
The population (1991) is 58,000 inhabitants, with a density of 124 inhabitants / km2. Andorra la Vella (1990) has about 20,437 inhabitants. Andorran people of Catalan descent make up less than 29% of the population. The rest are immigrants from other regions of Spain and France. The predominant religion is Catholicism, professed by 85% of the population. For years, the country was jointly governed by two co-princes (one of Spanish origin and one of French origin). In 1982, the legislative and executive functions were separated, with the establishment of an executive council (government), appointed by a general council and headed by a president. In 1993, a new Constitution was enacted, which ended the semi-feudal system and gave it an independent judiciary.
The gross domestic product is about 1 billion dollars (1990), which corresponds to a per capita income of 21,150 dollars. Although traditionally the Andorran economy has been based on cattle raising, tobacco production and logging, tourism is currently the most important sector, particularly focused on winter sports and the liberality of the country’s tax legislation. Andorra has two currencies: the French franc and the Spanish peseta.
Charlemagne declared Andorra a free state (9th century). Since 1278, it has been governed by two princes: in the Spanish part, this position was held by the bishop of Urgel; France’s rights passed successively from its kings to its heads of state.