Check out the characteristics and natural, economic and human picture of Monsoon Asia.
1. General characteristics
Monsoon Asia is a region bathed by two oceans: the Indian and the Pacific. In the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea or the Oman Sea stands out, between the Arabian Peninsula and the Decan Peninsula, in addition to the Gulf of Bengal, between the Decan Peninsula and Indochina. In the Pacific Ocean, it suits the Gulf of Siam and the South China Sea.
Monsoon Asia is made up of countries with a capitalist economy, such as India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, etc., as well as countries that have already lived through the socialist experience, such as certain countries in Indochina.
2. Natural framework
Monsoon Asia occupies South and Southeast Asia, encompassing the Decan Peninsula, Indochina Peninsula (including the Malaga Peninsula), as well as a number of islands.
South and Southeast Asia have three distinct morphological units.
- To the north are large mountains that isolate India and Pakistan from Iran, Central Asia and Burma or Myanmar. The Himalayas are the main formation, where the highest peaks of the globe are found, such as Everest (8,848 meters of altitude), in addition to the other 60 highest peaks in the world.
- On the Decã Peninsula, we have the plateau of the same name, formed by crystalline terrains and very rich in mineral reserves. In the Indochina Peninsula, the main highlight is the Laos Crystalline Plateau .
The plains appear next to the rivers, mainly in the Lower Mecong, the largest being the Indo-Gangetic, formed by sediments transported from the mountains of the North.
The rivers that originate in the Himalayas are usually fed by snow and the summer monsoon; they are bulky and bathe the regions of greatest rainfall. The rivers that originate in the Planalto do Decã are generally fed by the summer monsoon and vary in volume, some of which are not perennial.
- Rio Indo
It is born in the Himalayas, Kashmir region, cuts across Pakistan, and ends in the Sea of Oman or Arabia. It is the longest river that flows into the Indian Ocean, with more than 3,200 km in length.
- Ganges River
And the sacred river of India, bathes the holy city of Benares (cradle of Brahminism). 350 km from the coast, it joins its waters with those of the Bramaputra River, ending in the Gulf of Bengal, next to Bangladesh.
- Rio Bramaputra
It is born in Tibet, on the slopes of the Himalayas, passes through India, Bangladesh and flows into a delta, along with the Ganges, in the Gulf of Bengal; has 2,900 km of extension.
- Mecong River
Born in Tibet and crosses the Indochina Peninsula. It divides Laos from Myanmar and Thailand, crosses Cambodia and Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh lard) and ends, after 4,500 km, in the South China Sea (Pacific Ocean)
Climate and Vegetation
According to Getzipcodes, most of South and Southeast Asia (Monsoon Asia) is located between the Tropic of Cancer (India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Vietnam) and the Equator (Indonesia). The region is characterized by the monsoon climate, resulting from the winds of the same name. During winter (December-January), air masses move from the continent to the sea and the entire region remains dry. In late spring, the winds start blowing from the sea to the continent, a fact that increases in the summer (July-August). At this time, the rains are torrential and characterize the highest rainfall in the globe, as in Cherrapungi, in the south of the Himalayas, where rainfall has already reached 12,000 mm annually.
Due to the relief, which in the Decan Peninsula is sloping from west to east, much of India and Pakistan is not affected by the humid summer monsoon winds, presenting vast areas that are almost a desert. The rains are scarce and irregular, seriously affecting a large part of the population that survives from agriculture.
The regions most affected by monsoons have abundant humidity and vegetation of dense forests and savannas. Forests cover coastal regions and islands, but are being devastated due to agricultural expansion.
The equatorial climate prevails in the archipelago of Indonesia, where, due to humidity and high temperatures, the dense Equatorial Forest appears.