Europe stretches from the North Pole to Sicily and from the North Sea or the Atlantic to the Urals. The continent covers an area of around 10,532,000 km² with a total of around 750 million residents. Its entire coastline is around 1.5 million km.
The largest state in Europe is Russia with an area of 17,075,400 km². But only about a quarter of the country belongs to Europe.
The country with the smallest area is the Vatican with an area of 0.44 km², after Monaco with an area of 1.95 km².
The longest river in Europe is the Volga in Russia with a length of around 3,531 km.
The highest mountain is Mont Blanc in France/Italy with a height of 4,810 m. Since the border of Europe in Russia is not clearly established even among experts, some also count the Elbrus in the Caucasus as part of Europe.
This mountain has a height of 5,642 m and would be the highest mountain in Europe.
Highest active volcano
The highest active volcano is Mount Etna in Sicily/Italy. Its height fluctuates between approx. 3,380 m and approx. 4,000 m.
The most populous city in Europe is Moscow (Russia) with a population of 11.5 million, followed by Istanbul (Turkey) with 9.8 million residents, and London (England) with 8.5 million residents.
The largest lake in Europe is the Ladoga lake in Karelia/Russia on the border with Finland with a pure water surface of 17,703 square kilometers. If you include the islands in the lake, there are even 18,390 square kilometers. The lake is completely frozen from around the end of November to around the beginning of April. The maximum depth of the lake is 225 m. It was formed as a result of the Ice Age, with its connection to the sea only breaking off 9,000 years ago. A number of animals originally living in the sea, such as the ringed seal, have adapted to fresh water.
It is interesting that in 1950 there were almost no Muslims in Western Europe. In 1970 it was around 2 million and in 2011 it was around 20 million.
The countries of Europe
|Country||Area in km²||Population in millions||Capital|
|Andorra||468||0.09||Andorra la Vella|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||242,900||62.6||London|
|Isle of Man||572||83,000||Douglas|
|Channel Islands||192||47.4||Saint Helier/Saint Peter Port|
|Netherlands||41,526||16.7||Amsterdam; The Hague, seat of
|San Marino||60.6||0.032||San Marino|
|Serbia and Montenegro||102,173||10.8||Belgrade|
|Slovak Republic||49,034||5.4||Bratislava (Pressburg)|
|Vatican city||0.44||0.00083||Vatican City in Rome|
Euro, European Central Bank
Since January 1, 2015, the euro (€) has been the common currency and legal tender in 19 of the 27 EU countries. Also in other countries not belonging to the EU or the euro area.
It took many years of preparatory work and political persuasion to arrive at the common currency. And then on December 16, 1995, the Madrid European Council set the name of the new currency to “Euro”. On December 13, 1996, the EU finance ministers then agreed on the Euro Stability Pact to ensure that all euro-participating states should secure the value of the currency for the future through consistent budgetary discipline. And two years later, on December 31, 1998, the exchange rates between the euro and the currencies of the participating states were fixed. On January 1, 1999, the euro became the legal booking currency in the member countries, but not yet a means of payment. On the following working day, January 2, 1999, the stock exchanges in Milan, Paris and Frankfurt am Main already have all securities listed in euros. On January 1, 2015, Lithuania became the last country to join the euro area. The 19 member states of the EU in which the euro is legal tender and legal currency are:
- Ireland excluding Northern Ireland
Beyond the EU countries, the euro is also an official currency in the following countries:
- Andorra, by unilateral declaration
- French Guiana, as an overseas territory of France
- Kosovo, by unilateral declaration
- Montenegro, by unilateral declaration
- Saint Pierre and Miquelon
- Monaco, economically linked to France
- San Marino
- Vatican city
There are the following coins:
- 1 cent
- 2 cents
- 5 cents
- 10 cents
- 20 cents
- 50 cents
- 1 €
- 2 euros
There are the following banknotes:
- 5 euros
- 10 Euro
- 20 Euros
- 50 Euros
- 100 euros
- 200 euros
- 500 euro
The conversion into the (old) D-Mark, which is still possible indefinitely at the respective central banks, takes place in the following way:
|€ 1 = DM 1.95583|
- If you want to convert DM values into euros, then the DM value must be divided by 1.95583; for a good rough calculation, division by 2 is sufficient.
- If you want to convert euro values into DM values, the euro value must be multiplied by 1.95583, for a good rough calculation a multiplication by 2 is sufficient.
Euro bills or banknotes
5 € note
At 12 cm x 6.2 cm, the 5 € note is the smallest euro banknote. Their basic color is gray.
Since May 2, 2013, there have been new and particularly forgery-proof notes.
€ 10 note
The € 10 note has a size of 12.7 cm x 6.7 cm. Its basic color is red.
Since September 23, 2014 there have been new and particularly forgery-proof notes.
€ 20 note
The € 20 note has a size of 13.3 cm x 7.2 cm. Its basic color is blue.
50 € note
The 50 € note has a size of 14 cm x 7.7 cm. Its basic color is orange.
€ 100 note
The € 100 note has a size of 14.7 cm x 8.2 cm. Its basic color is green.
€ 200 note
The € 200 note has a size of 15.3 cm x 8.2 cm. Its basic color is yellowish brown.
500 € note
The 500 € note has a size of 16 cm x 8.2 cm. Its basic color is purple.
On January 10, 2013, the second series of euro banknotes with the five-euro note was presented to the public in Frankfurt am Main. The other notes will follow in the order of their value. The next new note will be the ten-euro note, which will gradually replace the old one in autumn 2014. The old ones are gradually being phased out. The new banknotes are similar to the previous ones in terms of color and design, but their overall appearance can be clearly distinguished from the old ones.
The new banknotes are supposed to offer greater security against counterfeit money, which is why they are equipped with three new security features.
- A hologram shows a portrait of Europa in the silver stripe of the banknotes, which becomes visible when the banknotes are held at an angle. In the strip there is also a symbol and the face value of the notes.
- The portrait of Europa can also be seen as a watermark.
- There is also a so-called emerald number on which a light bar moves up and down when the banknote is held at an angle. The number changes color from emerald green to a deep blue.
Newspapers in Faroe Islands
In the Faroe Islands six newspapers are published with 1–5 issues per week and a total circulation of just over 30,000 copies. The oldest and largest is Dimmalætting (4 issues / week and 11,000 copies), established in 1877 and language tubes for the Sambandspartiet. Between 4,000 and 7,000 items. has the Social Democratic Social Watch (5 issues / week), the unpolitical Oyggjatíðinði (2 issues / week) and the People’s Party Dagblaðið (1 issue / week).
The national radio (Útvarp Føroya), which started in 1957, is mainly financed with license fees and paid social information. All programs are produced in the Faroe Islands and broadcast in Faroese. Prior to that, the Faroe Islanders listened mostly to Norwegian and Danish radio. In the late 1970s, local, private television associations were given the right to broadcast programs, which were mainly downloaded from Denmark’s Radio. Trials with national television started in 1984. The national television company Sjónvarp Føroya (SvF) now broadcasts five days a week and since 1989 with advertising as part-financing. According to agreement, SvF can use all programs broadcast on Denmark’s Radio.
Newspapers in Åland
In relation to its size, Åland has a rich selection of mass media. The six-day newspaper The Åland newspaper, founded in 1891, was for a long time the only local newspaper, but in 1981 got competition from New Åland, a five-day newspaper.
New Åland was founded by employees from the Åland newspaper after a conflict in which the board dismissed the newspaper’s editor-in-chief.
Together, the two newspapers have an edition of about 15,000 copies, an extremely high figure as the number of households in Åland is just over 13,000.
As a self-governing landscape, Åland has the right to grant licenses for radio broadcasts and to collect license fees. Public service has been conducted since 1996 by Ålands Radio / TV AB, which has a local radio channel and a local TV channel. In addition, the company broadcasts Swedish and Finnish radio and TV channels from the broadcasting station in Smedsböle outside Mariehamn. The analog broadcasts were turned off in 2006.