In 1900, 57% of Asian space was under European domination. The decolonization process took off only after the Second World War. During World War II, Japan occupied several European and North American colonies in Asia, such as the Philippines (BUA), Malaysia (England), Vietnam (France), Indonesia (Netherlands) etc., which accelerated the emergence of nationalist movements , organized to combat both the European colonizer and the Japanese invader. Thus, several colonies achieved their independence:
- India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka (Ceylon) breaking free from England (1947);
- Indonesia , from the Netherlands (1954);
- Vietnam and Laos, France (1954);
- Myanmar (Burma), England (1948);
- Malaysia , from England (1957);
- Singapore , from England (1965);
- Cambodia (Campuchéa), France (1953);
- Korea, Japan (1948).
India and Pakistan
In the independence movement of India stood out Mahatma Gandhi , who preached non-violence. Despite this pacifism, internal armed struggles took place from 1945 to 1947, which led Pakistan, which belonged to India, to become an independent country. (See Independence of India )
Then two countries were formed: Pakistan, with a predominantly Muslim population, and India, with a practically Hindu population.
In 1971, East Pakistan separated from West Pakistan, becoming an independent country by the name of Bangladesh or Bengal.
The first war for the control of Kashmir (1947-48) caused the division of the region: one third for Pakistan and two thirds for India, in addition to a fraction that already belonged to China.
According to Localbusinessexplorer, the Kashmir region is inhabited by a Muslim majority.
In the 1980s, Islamic separatist guerrillas made widespread movement in Indian Kashmir.
India has responded to the Islamic offensive with violent repression and accuses Pakistan of supporting Muslim Kashmiris by providing them with weapons and training gases.
In 1998, India and Pakistan carried out nuclear tests. India carried out five underground nuclear explosions in the Rajasthan desert. Pakistan did the tests on the Iranian border.
In December 2001 and in the course of 2002, tension increased, coming close to a war between India and Pakistan. One of the reasons for global concerns is the nuclear capacity of the two countries.
In a few hours interval, Pakistan and India carried out experimental launches of ballistic missiles capable of transporting nuclear warheads on October 4, 2002.
The moment India attacks, Pakistan will call a holy war against India and invite Muslims from all over the world and sneak into Indian territory to commit attacks. Pakistan will also support separatist movements in India and may even bomb Indian high-tech centers.
The Indian Air Force and Army are eager to carry out an offensive and only political authority is detaining them, said Sunit Ganguly, author of Endless Conflict, which shows relations between India and Pakistan.
So far, the United States has done nothing substantial to reduce the risks emanating from the four most dangerous places in the world: the Middle East, India-Pakistan, North Korea (in the long run) and China-Taiwan.
In January 2003, Pakistan and India renewed an agreement not to attack each other’s nuclear facilities. The exchange of information, which includes the exact location of the nuclear facilities, is the latest sign of easing tensions between the two rival neighbors.