Hamadan– one of the most ancient cities in the world, the capital of the Median kingdom and the first capital of ancient Persia, one of the centers of the development of civilization and the birthplace of numerous Persian dynasties, today it is the capital of the region of the same name in Iran. The city lies at the foot of Mount Alvand, at an altitude of 1,829 m above sea level, 400 km southwest of Tehran. Now it is a large commercial and industrial center of the fertile region, famous for its pleasant summer climate, many interesting places and green gardens. In Hamadan there are the mausoleum and museum of the philosopher and physician Avicenna, the Jewish mausoleum (considered the tomb of the legendary Esther and Mordecai), the tomb of the mystic and dervish Baba Taher (1019, restored in 1970), Mosalla Hill, where you can find the ruins of the Parthian citadel and the ancient temple of Anahita, the Parthian stone lion Sang-Shir in the city park of the same name, rock bas-reliefs of Ganjname (II-III centuries BC) on Mount Alvand, Khakmatana hill with ruins of defensive structures of the Median period, the palace of Darius intensively studied by archaeologists (521-486 BC), Gonbad-e mausoleum Alavian, in which members of the Alavi family, who ruled Hamadan for two centuries, are buried, the Burj-e Kurban tower (XII century), as well as the Museum of Natural History of the Bu-Ali University and the Hekmatan Museum. The surroundings of the city also deserve attention. Thousands of tourists are attracted by such objects as the picturesque valleys of Morad Beg and Abbas Abad, Ali Sadr Caves (75 km north of the city, one of the most extensive caves in the world), Alisadr Cave (75 km northwest of Hamadan), the village of potters Lalein, the ruins of a temple of the Seleucid period in the town of Nahavand, as well as a small gorge with a waterfall on the outskirts of Hamadan – a popular vacation spot for local residents.
Nishapur– located in the north-eastern part of Iran Extends on the lands of the Khorasan-Rezavi stan. The capital Tehran is located 670 kilometers away. Presumably, the city was formed in the middle of the 3rd century. According to one version, the founder of Nishapur was Shahinshah Shapur I. A century later, another ruler, Shapur II, radically changed its layout. From the moment of its foundation, the settlement was called Abarshahr. The modern name comes from the Persian phrase, which in translation means “Good Shapur”. In the 5th century Nishapur became the seat of the bishop of Persia. For the Zoroastrians, this was very important, since in the mountains located nearby, there was Adur-Burzen-Mihr – one of the sacred fires. In 650-651, the local lands were invaded by the Arabs, to whom the local ruler paid a huge tribute. In the 10th century, Nishapur was one of the largest and most developed cities in Iran. Its territory was divided into 44 quarters. The city served as a huge warehouse for numerous goods of Kerman, Gorgan, Sinl, Fars, Ray and Khorezm and was the main market of Iran. The most famous products were silk and cotton fabrics, part of which was exported to Europe. The most significant in those days were the craft associations of rope makers, hat makers and merchants selling silk fabrics. Today, modern Nishapur is the center of an agricultural region with irrigated lands. Cotton and oilseeds are grown here. Huge areas are occupied by vineyards and orchards. Turquoise is mined in the vicinity. The enterprises of the food industry work. Developed: leather production and animal husbandry. Until the 30s of the 20th century, the city territory was surrounded by the remains of walls, which, by order of Shah Reza Pahlavi, were demolished in due time. The old part of the city was built up after the earthquake of 1405. One of the ancient architectural monuments is the Cathedral Mosque dating back to 1493-1494.
Dizful is a city in the west of Iran in the province of Khuzestan, the administrative center of Shahrestan Dizful. The population is 205 thousand people. Most of the population are Persians, which is not typical for Khuzestan, populated mainly by Kurds and Arabs. Most of the city of Dezful is located on the left bank of the Deez River. On the right are parks and attractions, as well as the buildings of the Islamic Azad University. To the north and east of the city stretch the peaks of the Zagros mountain system, to the south and east – the plain
Today, Dezful has many ancient sights that testify to the venerable age of the city. Among them, it is worth noting the ruins of the irrigation system of the Sassanid period and the bridge of the Safavid era. No less interesting are mosques and tombs made in the unique local style, as well as ancient vaulted streets and houses located on them.
Kermanshah is one of the most ancient in Iran. It contains a bazaar, mosques and houses of the Qajar era (including the Friday Mosque, the Tekye Moaven-ol-Molk mosque and the house of Hajj Baruch in the former Jewish quarter), the Pol-e Kohne bridge of the era Safavids. Near Kermanshah are the Behistuns rock with inscriptions and reliefs of the Achaemenid and Parthian eras (including the statue of Hercules and the “cave of the Hunters”), the Tak-e-Bostan rock complex of the Sassanid era, Do-Ashkaft Cave. The ruins of the ancient Konkobar and the temple of Anahita of the Parthian era are located in the city of Kangavar, in the vicinity there is the Godin-Tepe hill with the ruins of the Elam era.