The Canada has important economic development, occupying the 10th place among the largest world economies and continuous pace of growth in recent years.
Canada’s arable land is very limited given the conditions of the natural environment, with a cold and polar climate that makes these activities impossible. Thus, only 7% of the territory has pastures and crops, concentrated in the southern portion, where temperatures are higher.
Among the agricultural areas in Canada, the plains of the south-central part of the country stand out, where the flat relief and fertile soils enable the production of large monocultures, especially wheat . In addition to these areas, the regions close to large urban centers, mainly in the southeastern region, concentrate the production of polycultures of cereals, vegetables and fruits and of livestock, which ensure the supply of cities.
Although its production area is restricted, Canada has excellent agricultural productivity, guaranteed by the high level of modernization in the sector. As a result, only 2% of the economically active Canadian population is employed in the countryside.
In addition, the presence of the boreal forest in 48% of Canadian territory guarantees the country prominence in the exploitation of forest resources , which represent one of the most important sources of wealth in the country. This type of exploitation occurs in several regions, especially in the province of British Columbia. However, although Canada has an intense exploitation, it does not compromise its forest reserves, as the activity takes place under strict forest management, with mandatory replanting of trees.
The Canadian industrial sector is characterized by a high level of modernization, using very advanced technologies. The country has companies that operate in very different activities, such as textiles, food, electronics and automobiles.
The industrial sector is the basis of the Canadian economy, generating about 26% of the national GDP and employing approximately 23% of the country’s economically active population. In addition, Canada is a major exporter of manufactured goods, that is, of machinery and equipment, which correspond to almost half of the country’s exports.
According to Recipesinthebox, Canada’s main industrial regions are located in the southeastern region, in the Great Lakes areas and in the São Lourenço River valley, coinciding with the country’s major urban centers.
Canada’s mineral exploration
Canada has an abundance of natural resources, mainly oil and coal. This was one of the main factors for the development of the country’s industry, since the exploitation of these resources guaranteed the generation of sufficient energy for the consumption of the factories.
The presence of large and diverse deposits of minerals in the Canadian subsoil also favored the industrialization of the country. The exploitation of ores, especially zinc, copper, lead and iron, enabled the development of industries in the steel and metallurgical sector, which boosted the expansion of other sectors of the industries.
Canada’s mineral exploration, in addition to supplying national industries, also exports ores to several countries.
Canada’s Economic Regions
It corresponds to the territories of Yukon and the northwest, Nunavut and the north of Quebec . Polar and cold (subpolar) climates prevail in the region, with the respective plant formations of the tundra and taiga (conifers). The Rocky Mountains stand out in the landscape of the Yukon territory. The soil is frozen most of the year, considered permafrost . Due to climatic conditions, it presents a demographic void. Economically, activities related to mineral extraction stand out – gold in the Yukon, copper and uranium in the northwest, vegetable (wood) and animal (hunting and fishing). In hydrography, relevance to lake formations and the Mackenzie River.
The province of British Columbia has the Rocky Mountains in most of the territory. The vegetal cover of the taiga conditioned the economic activities of the extraction of the wood and the production of paper and cellulose. The high hydroelectric potential determines the large production of aluminum in Kitimat – bauxite is imported mainly from Jamaica and Guyana. The region has important salmon production and the canning industry. Gold, copper, silver, lead, zinc complete the region’s wealth of natural resources. The region is the second urban-industrial concentration in the country, highlighting Vancouver, an important industrial-port city in the Pacific Ocean. Polyculture and dairy farming activities increase the economic importance of the region.
Prairie or Central Plain
Plains and fertile soil (humus) dominate the landscape of the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba , providing the development of mechanized agriculture (wheat, potatoes, barley and oats) and beef cattle (meat to serve domestic and foreign markets). external). The Winnipeg region, in the province of Manitoba, is an important cereal center. Oil, mineral coal and natural gas and potassium production stand out in the region’s economy, mainly in Alberta, in the Edmonton region. Industrial areas that stand out: Edmonton (Alberta), Regina (Saskatchewan) and Winnipeg (Manitoba).
A region that encompasses the Great Lakes and the São Lourenço Valley , where the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (French-speaking separatist) are located, being the largest urban-industrial centers in the country, highlighting the cities of Toronto, Montreal, Hamilton, Ottawa and Quebec, with productions in the sectors of steel, metallurgy, paper, chemistry, automobile, railway equipment and commercial aircraft (eg Bombardier in Montreal, competitor of Brazilian Embraer). In agriculture, polyculture and dairy farming complete the economic importance of the region. The city of Montreal is the main port on the São Lourenço River.
The great economic highlight of the Atlantic Coast region are the activities of fishing for salmon, herring and cod and whaling. Halifax is the main port center. Polyculture and timber extraction complete the region’s wealth.
Economic dependence on the USA
The United States has had a very important participation in the Canadian economy since the time of the First World War (1914-1918), when England interrupted its exports to Canada. This favored the entry of American investments in the country and caused Canadian industrialization to develop under the great influence of US capital. However, this made Canada’s economy very dependent on the USA.
Currently, about 75% of Canada’s production is exported to the United States, while 50% of Canada’s imports come from the USA. In addition, most Canadian industries, especially those in the high-tech sector, have majority ownership of US investors. This makes Canada increasingly subordinate to the neighboring country’s political and economic interests and decisions.
This dependency has been progressively increasing, especially after the creation of NAFTA , the North American Free Trade Agreement, in 1988. NAFTA is a free trade area that constitutes one of the most important regional economic blocs on the American continent and includes the Canada, the USA and Mexico.
However, it is important to note that Canada’s economic dependence on the United States is very different from that between developed and underdeveloped countries. Canada does not have as many internal social inequalities as underdeveloped countries, and its external indebtedness does not compromise its financial reserves, which makes it one of the largest creditors in the world, part of the IMF and the World Bank.