With a view to the Antarctic Treaty, Brazil, later, became part of the scientific community established on the continent.
In 1982, the first Brazilian scientific expedition reached the continent, composed of two vessels: the polar ship “Barão de Teffé” and the oceanographic ship “Professor Wladimir Besnard”, and a few dozen scientists.
The Comandante Ferraz Base , inaugurated on February 6, 1984, located on Ilha Jorge Jorge, integrated Brazil into the community installed in Antarctica, although, for material and financial reasons, Brazilian research is moving very slowly.
The depletion of the ozone layer and its relationship with Antarctica
The use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and their emission into the atmosphere have been studied by scientists, who found that these compounds destroy the ozone layer that protects our planet from ultraviolet radiation.
The displacement of the air currents causes this incidence to occur more accentuated in Antarctica (this discovery occurred in 1983 and since that time, research has been accentuated in this sense, looking for causes and consequences of the damages caused to plants, animals and diseases in the human beings: skin cancer and cataracts (eye problem) At ECO-92 (RJ) this problem was raised and an agreement was reached to prevent the issuance of the CFC.
The effects of this depletion of the ozone layer in Antarctica are also being studied, and at Palmer Station (USA), it was discovered that high levels of ultraviolet radiation can damage the chlorophyll pigment, which is fundamental in performing phytoplankton photosynthesis, and that reduces plant growth. It is feared that this fact will affect life on the frozen continent, compromising the food chain, as it threatens krill, a key link in the Antarctic food chain.
According to the scientists, “fish, whales, penguins and flying birds depend on krill and, if something happens to it, the entire system will go into crisis.”
According to Paradisdachat, the discovery of the Antarctic continent is controversial. Américo Vespúcio is credited with navigating the Antarctic waters as early as the early 16th century. The Englishman James Cook crossed the Antarctic Polar Circle at the end of the 18th century without, however, reaching the continent.
In 1820 three expeditions reached the continent: that of the Russian Bellingshausen, that of the British Bransfield and that of the American Palmer. But it was not until 1907 that explorer Roald Amundsen reached the South Pole .
Other expeditions followed and the first territorial claims on the continent emerged.
In 1944 the first permanent research stations were established.
The 1st Antarctic Conference held in Paris in July of that year, which established rules for the occupation of the continent, brought together twelve countries.
The Antarctic Treaty was signed on December 10, 1958 and came into force in 1961, establishing that south of the 60th parallel, which encloses the Antarctic continent, the interested nations could use, in addition to the continent itself, islands, oceans and seas, only for scientific development for peaceful purposes.
In 1991, the treaty proposed a division of the frozen continent between countries that were part of the Antarctic scientific community.
Germany, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, North Korea, South Korea, Cuba, Denmark, Ecuador, Spain, Finland, Greece, the Netherlands, Hungary, India, Italy, Papua New Guinea, joined the original treaty signatories, Peru, Poland, Romania, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Uruguay.